Most of London’s rate-assisted or free libraries were constructed during a relatively lively period of expansion between c.1888 and c.1905.(2) Each new institution was announced with great fanfare, in the form of a well-attended opening ceremony. Local media coverage of these celebratory public events was extensive. Alongside detailed descriptions of the library building itself, journalists sometimes included a reference to the size or character of the library flat or apartment. Likewise, when documenting the appointment of a new chief or head librarian, library committee minutes from the period might mention that the salary was ‘inclusive of’ residence, rates, fuel and light.(3) Or administrative records might otherwise pass incidental remark upon the librarian’s flat or house, as in the extract from the 1892 note ‘To the Press’ printed under the photograph above. It was small clues of this type that first alerted me to the intriguing phenomenon of ‘living-in’. Curious to discover more about the practice, I turned to the floor plans of new free libraries printed in specialist contemporary journals such as the Library or the Builder. Here I found concrete and conclusive proof that accommodation for the librarian frequently formed an integral part of the new build.
Library diagrams and drawings also yielded valuable data on dimension and layout. Published in 1889, the floor plans of the new Battersea Library in south London indicated that the librarian’s apartments were spread across three floors and included a dining room and a drawing room, as well as separate larder and pantry areas.(4) The floor plans of Clapham Library, also in south London, show that the library was constructed upon an 8,000-square-foot site; and almost the whole of the second floor of the building was given over to the librarian’s residence.(5) At Edmonton Library in north London, the librarian’s apartment was spread across two floors, with ‘a separate entrance…provided for him at the end of the news-room.’(6) At the new building at St Martin-in-the-Fields in the West End of London, it was reported that ‘the top floor is to be fitted as a residence for the librarian.’(7). Armed with these ephemeral scraps of evidence, I was able to state with confidence that some metropolitan public librarians started their careers living above or alongside their library premises. But was it possible to comment more precisely on numbers and locations? Was it realistic to try to ascertain how widespread was the practice of ‘living-in’ in London’s libraries c.1900?
To answer this question, I paid close attention to the table of data gathered by the Borough clerk in West Ham in east London around 1906. The clerk’s managers had requested guidance on appropriate salary levels for their library employees so – in an early version of comparator analysis – the clerk had circulated a survey to chief librarians across the Greater London boroughs, asking for information on salary levels and other minutiae of library administration. The more precise respondents were careful to point out where salary figures in their region had been modified by the issue of residency. In other words, they stated the amount their librarians received alongside such invaluable qualifications as with house, fuel and light or with house, coal and light or with apartments, &c.(8) These qualifications made it possible to specify which London library buildings included accommodation for the chief or sub-librarian around 1906 – up to a point.
The problem is that not every London public library was represented in the West Ham survey findings and not all library residencies were explicitly announced in the table of returns; that is, while some respondents took the trouble to mention residency, others did not. Allowing for inconsistencies in the West Ham data – and mapping the findings from this source onto my discoveries elsewhere in local studies archives across the city – I have been able to establish that, of the 30 or so main library buildings in London c.1906, at least 20 were managed by a chief librarian who lived over or alongside the library premises. Of the 50 or so smaller branch libraries, at least 20 were run by a resident sub-librarian. To provide an idea of the geographical spread of the phenomenon of ‘living-in’, it is worth pointing out that librarians occupied accommodation in libraries from Shoreditch, Whitechapel, West Ham, Limehouse, Poplar, and Leyton in the east, to Fulham, Chiswick, Chelsea, Hammersmith, Paddington, Ealing and Richmond in the west; and from Southwark, Lambeth, Camberwell, Woolwich, Bermondsey and Battersea in the south, to Harlesden, Willesden Green, Walthamstow, Kilburn and Stoke Newington in the north.
Inevitably, each of these 40+ librarians experienced a different version of ‘living-in’. Some occupied purpose-built accommodation in new library premises while others were given converted rooms in existing buildings; but it appeared that all enjoyed a relatively deluxe domestic experience. ‘Relatively’ in three senses. First, their library flats were spacious and well-equipped, compared to the type of dwellings they might realistically have been able to rent on the open property market: even senior public library posts in London only came with a salary of between £120 and £220 in the 1890s. Second, the library buildings they occupied were grand in architectural terms, relative to the surrounding built environment. This was especially the case in areas such as Limehouse, Shoreditch and Bermondsey. Third, in lifestyle terms, occupying well-appointed apartments with easy access to the beautifully-designed and fitted-out learning institutions they managed represented a giant step forwards, or upwards, for a cohort of subaltern professionals from relatively modest or humble social backgrounds. The typical Victorian chief librarian was the ‘bookish’ self-educated son of a working class or artisan father. As an aside, it is interesting to note that all chief librarians in London at this time were men.
Describing the plans for a public library in Chelsea in west London in 1889, the writer of a Library journal article pointed out that the architect’s designs for the building included: ‘a commodious and handsome residence for the librarian.’(9) It appeared that the designers of London’s late-Victorian public library buildings – many of which were prestige or flagship constructions, bearing the name of their benefactor in elaborately worked scrolls or tablets over the main entrance (see the Pitfield Street example at the top of this post) – had been generous in apportioning space to the residential librarian. Perhaps too generous. By 1907, the author of an instruction manual aimed at library architects was advising a more economical approach: ‘where…the architect has to include accommodation for a librarian he should avoid making this unnecessarily commodious, and should not provide more than five or at most six rooms in addition to bathroom, closet, and the necessary offices.’(10) For many among the first generation of chief librarians in London, this recommendation arrived too late to disrupt their comfortable inhabitant arrangements. Although the convention of providing a flat for the librarian as part of a new library building programme had been quietly shelved by the First World War, this set of librarians remained very much at home in their ‘unnecessarily commodious’ accommodation right up to the time of their (often unwilling) retirement in the 1920s.
(1) ‘To the Press’ circulated by the Shoreditch Library Commissioners, 30 November 1892 Out Letters from the Chief Librarian, 1891-1894, Hackney Local Studies Archive
(2) This post uses up some of the scraps leftover from a chapter contributed to a book on residential institutions in Britain, published in June 2013. I gave a talk on the subject at a conference in 2010. My research into the neglected phenomenon of ‘living-in’ remains an ongoing project so all insights into the subject (including anecdotes and suggested corrections to the text) are welcome in the comments section below.
(3) 2 October 1889, ‘Commissioners of Public Libraries and Museums of the Parish of St Giles: Minutes 1888-1898’, Volume 1, 1888-1893, Southwark Archive 2775-7
(4) The Library, First Series, Vol.I, 1889, pp.141-2
(5) F.J.Burgoyne, ‘Library Construction. Architecture, Fittings and Furniture,’ (London, 1897) in Richard Garnett (ed.), The Library Series (London 1897-99), pp.204-5
(6) As (5), pp.211-12
(7) The Library, First Series, Vol.I, 1889, p.211
(8) ‘Tabulation of returns obtained by the town clerk as to the salaries &c. of librarians in Greater London,’ London County Borough of West Ham, 1906 (facsimile copy held in London Collection, Bishopsgate Institute & Archive)
(9) The Library, First Series, Vol.I, 1889, pp.274-5
(10) My italics. Amian L. Champneys, Public Libraries. A Treatise on their Design, Construction and Fittings (London, 1907), pp.110-1; see also Walter A. Briscoe, Library Planning (London, 1927)